Now what kinds of technology are reguired?
- To seek harmony with the Natural Environment -
Professor of Osaka Kyoiku University, Japan
Human beings are different from other life forms in the point that they recreate nature for themselves. We have tried to change nature for more comfortable conditions. We have used technology to change nature. There are various instruments of technology. The instruments have become increasingly complicated with the passing of time. They have been developed and called machines. We made nature more and more artificial with these machines. For example, in the 17th century there was a study which clarifies the system of nature in Europe as modern science. Then we could acquire various knowledge of the study to develop our technology. This is how technology has been developed.
Europeans believed that technology made their lives convenient and comfortable, so they appreciated it. Especially with the generation of the electric system, it could not compare with a water mill and steam engines. Moreover, in the 20th century, material abundance, which has been maintained by both mortalization and petrochemistry technology, let us think that civilization was only absolute exsistence. However, everything in this scenario was notÅglightÅh. Technology, which maintains scientific civilization, has also the part ofÅgshadeÅh. That is, various environmental problems.
Now human beings seek technology which can harmonize with the Natural Environment. Then what would this technology be like? So far most technology, which especially destroyed nature was developed without caring about the effect on others. For example cars, they release harmful gas. Exhaust gas brought about air pollution. Recently, we have devised ways to make the density of gas lower. Further more, hybrid cars which have functions of gasoline car and electric car have been made. But new environmental problems may be caused by such cars.
It is an important issue to get food for human life. Techniques such as hunting and collecting were used when humans got food without scientific technology. Then humans devised breeding and cultivating techniques with science technology necessary for an increasing population. In ancient civilizations the necessity to care for the environment had been recognized through the salt damage by the invented irrigation technique. This lesson should be made use of for the present agriculture which depends on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Environmental problems such as soil degeneration, soil erosion and pesticide pollution has happened. When we re-examine the present technology, we know that we need to consider the system of circulation by nature. In agricultural technology we have to consider the activity of soil creatures. In supplying power technology, we have to consider the solar system and wind power generation in order to conserve the environment. At this Symposium I expect some panelists will suggest such environmentaylly friendly ideas.
Nuclear Technology and Human Behaviors
Professor of Peking University
The process of nuclear energy¹s discovery and development proved that human beings must employ their technology more wisely.
1. The Happiness and Anxiety of Scientists
The purpose for which human beings develop science and technology is create heaven, but they sometimes make themselves a form of hell. In 1942, for the first time, they completed the experiment of controllable nuclear fission chain reaction, discovering the 'gold key' that can open the door of nuclear energy. They were wild with joy. However, it is because of the discovery of nuclear energy that human beings have produced the awful atomic bomb, which injured and killed more than 200,000 people. This is the tragedy of human war.
2. The Jeopardy of Nuclear Radiation
During the arms race of the cold war, a lot of nuclear experiments were carried out in the atmosphere. According to the investigation of UNSCEAR in 1993, human beings have conducted 520 nuclear experiments on the earth, produced serious radiation pollution in the atmosphere, and done serious harm to the people and children who live near the nuclear experiment fields. Nuclear power stations will cause little radiation to the neighborhood residents if they operate normally, but in case of accident, they can cause serious harm to the residents. For example, the explosion of Kyshtym Factory in 1952 and the explosion of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986 produced serious harm to the people who lived in these polluted areas. In applying nuclear technology, there were four critical accidents of misuse of radioactive sources, which have caused a lot of death and injury.
At present, the main source of irradiation that all humans have received is from natural radioactive sources. This can be used as a standard to evaluate the artificial radioactivity irradiation level. According to the estimates of UNSCEAR, natural radioactivity is 5 times that of medical irradiation, 100 times that of nuclear explosions, 1000 times that of nuclear power stations, if it is denoted by average effective irradiation.
3. Develop Nuclear Power and Improve The Environment
Along with the increase of population and the growth of individual energy consumption, the energy requirements and consumption of the world are increasing. By now, energy mainly comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas, but these resources are finite and can not be regenerated. In addition, the combustion of coal, petroleum and natural gas produces serious environmental pollution; it is the principal cause of the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Unlike thermal power plants nuclear power stations do not produce harmful materials such as dust, sulfur dioxide, sulfide, or heavy metal elements. Nuclear power stations consume very little fuel every year, the amount of nuclear waste is small, and the waste can be dealt with safely. From 1980 to 1986, the proportion of nuclear power in gross generation rose from 24 to 70 percent in France. In this period, there was a 56 percent decrease in the emission of sulfur dioxide, 36 percent decrease in the emission of dust, and the quality of air was improved distinctly. There are 442 nuclear power stations in the world. They are distributed among 30 countries and districts, supply almost 17 percent of the electric power of the world, and enable the emission of carbon dioxide to decrease to about 8 percent.
4. Nuclear Technology Brings Culture and Human Advancement
Radioactive rays are used to cure cancers, and they save many people from death. Radioimmunoassay has become the main method of diagnosing original hepatic cancer. With isotopic tracing technology, we can find out the source of pollution material, the way of distribution and their final state.
Neutron activation analysis solves many difficulties for us, and it can also be used to solve some environmental problems.
Radiation can be used to get rid of pests and bacteria, to keep food fresh and to improve seeds, etc.
Nuclear technology can bring wealth, culture and advancement to human life; however, it can also do harm to human beings, even ruin the world. Technology is a 'two-bladed sword'. Whether it does benefit or harm to the world is determined by how it is used and by the people who use it. The thoughts and purposes of these people influence the application of technology. Whether it is used to improve the life of human beings, to achieve common interests for all the people, or to satisfy the voracity and rapacity of a minority class, is determined by the viewpoints and moral criteria of these people. Today, we must widely spread the concept of a global world, social equity and disgust of violence. We must establish the new creed of maintaining harmony between human and human, humans and nature. This is the goal that we and our children must strive for.
Relationship between Technology and Agriculture
Assistant Professor of Rajabhat Institute Phranakhon, Thailand
The process of development inherently involves change. The shift from country to urban, small centers to sprawling, traditional to technological, and the decline of an ancestral way of life have become visible signposts of transition in Thailand.
As for the farmer, Thai farmers worked manually in the fields using, cows and buffaloes etc. Agricultural products feed their families, then they got more products they sold to other people. After World War II many things had changed to produce more agricultural products for export. On the other hand, we received agriculture technology from western countries and also Japan, such as machinery, pesticides, plant and animal varieties.
The interrelationship between technology and agriculture was clearly acknowledged by discussion. However, there was a divergence of views concerning its impact. On the negative side, it may be submitted that technology has led to over-exploitation and pollution. Unbalanced agricultural technology has favored "progressive" agriculture at the expense of marginal coarse grain and the rain-fed traditional farm system.
However, the negative repercussions remain disconcerting, as follows.
- New forms of technology which lead to loss of traditional occupations, livelihoods and values.
- Multiplicity of "problematic" such as
"small is beautiful" V. S. "big is powerful"
"appropriate technology" V. S. "advanced technology"
"sustainable development" V. S. "growth"
On the positive side, it may be said that technology has much to contribute to agriculture. This is often contingent upon appropriate and culture-sensitive technology whose utilization is dependent upon community participation. A combination of traditional and new technologies need to be explored to attain a balance between humans and nature.
Influence of Technology upon Ecosystems
Nancy J. Turner
Professor, University of Victoria, Canada
The history of the human race has been one of increasing technological development. Indeed, our characterizations of different eras of human history reflect in large part our self-congratulatory view of our technological history: the Neolithic age, the Iron Age, the Agricultural Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Electronic Age.... Technology, an outcome of our human ingenuity, has brought many benefits to humankind.
It has allowed us to understand our environment and our universe better, to improve our health, to increase our numbers, to exploit more and more different environments and resources. When we compare ourselves to virtually any other lifeform on earth, even our closest relatives the chimpanzees, we may feel proud of our accomplishments.
However, there is a large cloud looming over our technological accomplishments. With the exception of a cohort of generalist species which are able to thrive in--and have grown to depend upon--conditions we create (rats, weeds, some insects, domesticated plants and animals), most lifeforms on earth have experienced declines since the rise of human technologies. There is virtually no ecosystem on earth that has not felt the impact of our activities. Many species -- no one knows the exact numbers -- have ceased to exist because of us, and many others have significantly declined in numbers, range and genetic diversity. Not just species, but entire communities and ecosystems, have drastically declined, and in some cases, disappeared. We can look to any continent to find examples.
In some cases, as with large mammals, game birds, and others that are specifically hunted or exploited, humans decreased numbers directly. In most instances, however, it is through indirect--and often unanticipated--effects of our technologies. For example, our development and massive applications of DDT, Dieldrin and other insecticides had the unforeseen consequences of bioaccumulation that was felt in the development of soft shells in birds, causing instant population declines in many species. The acid drainage and other pollutants from mining and smelting, and acid rain from other industrial development, have literally "killed" entire ecosystems.
It is our technologies that have allowed us to build massive transportation systems, vast open-pit mines, and huge dams that cause flooding of entire valleys. Our technologies have promoted clearcutting of vast swathes of forest in both tropics and temperate regions, and ploughing, planting and harvesting of enormous fields of monoculture crops like sugarcane, corn, and soybeans. Our technologies have allowed us to drain wetlands, create urban metropolises, and exterminate virtually all fish in the ocean for a hundred miles at a stretch. The impacts of these actions have been nothing short of devastating for the other lifeforms we use and abuse, often without thought. Ozone depletion and global warming are two of the darkest worries to come, in terms of their long term and overriding impacts on the biosphere.
Technology truly has a good hand and a bad hand. The bad hand has struck other lifeforms, perhaps more than ourselves, but, ultimately, it is humans who have to control it, for the survival of all of us. Now, we need to apply its good hand to solving the problems we have created.
Technology and Artificial Environment
Professor of Konan University, Japan
On the topic of technology and the environment, we often hear it said that the progress of technology has brought about the destruction of the environment, or that technological development for protecting the natural environment should be of prime importance. Many a short-circuit mind tends to believe that the rapid progress of technology is the alpha and omega of the destruction of the natural environment.
Protection of the natural environment or development of technology for protecting the natural environment is important, and we have to continue making efforts towards that common goal. But from time immemorial, what efforts have human beings made to protect the environment? Or, what in the world do we really mean by environment?
Mankind, from their appearance on the earth, has worked on. If protection of the environment is to preserve nature as she stands, the best way is to exterminate mankind. But, in that case, it is very doubtful whether nature in its present state will remain the same. The cause of propagating the protection of the environment surely comes from our wish to bequeath a better environment to posterity. When questioned why we do so, we might answer that we will help our posterity live a happier life.
Arriving at this point of the argument, we come to realize that the problem may not only be the protection of the natural environment, but how to strive towards producing a better environment by artificial efforts. In the Mediterranean countries, we see many relics of Roman aqueducts. Their efforts to carry water into the environment so that people may live, may be translated, in today's phrasing as the destruction of the natural environment. When the Eiffel Tower was constructed, when the Kyoto Tower was built, when the New Tokaido Railways were constructed, or when the Narita Airport was laid out, there was a strong opposition to their construction, as the environment was surely damaged to a certain extent. But we also have enjoyed direct benefits from these man-made additions, enough to make up for what we lost. When it comes to the problem of the destruction of tropical forests, of ozone holes, of the extensive atmospheric pollution, and of global heating, they are such so grave problems on a global scale, as to bring about the extermination of mankind.
In the 21st century, the environment that surrounds us will be greatly different from what we are in now. Among other changes, the change in the informational environment will go beyond our imagination. We might be living longer in a virtual world than in the actual world, just as at present we spend longer hours in office buildings and in underground shopping malls.
What should we do to bring such artificial environments as brought about by technology, to contribute to the happiness of mankind, not by destroying or substituting the natural environment but by keeping it in harmony? Each of us has to face the task as one of the important subjects of environmental education.
Effect of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Kobe Institute of Health, Japan
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are first reported in T. Colborn's book entitled "Our Stolen Future" in 1996. Since then,this new concept of environmental problem is discussed in this country. Ultratrace amount of endocrine disrupting chemicals perturbs homeostatic hormonal control in man,cattles and wild animals. Smithsonian workshop in Feb. 1997 defined EDCs as follows. "An exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding,action or elimination of natural hormones in the body, which are responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis, reproduction, development and/or behavior. "EDCs include over 70 chemicals such as pesticidic organochlorine, dichlorodiphenyl tri-chloroethane (DDT), aldrin, dieldrin, polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDD), 2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alkylphenolpoly-ethoxylates (APEs), heavy metals, phytoestrogens. Many reported etiological relationship between EDCs and male and female reproductive organs or loss of sexual potency in wild animals. Clinically, increased incidence of oligospermatosis, testicular tumor, endometriosis and breast cancer are also suspected. In July 1997, Environmental Protection Agency and Health Ministry of Japan reported retro-and prospective research projects on this subject. Major prefectural governments started surveillance of EDCs related air pollution in Oct. 1997.
A new trend in development strategy in Japan
Professor of Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
1 The appearance of endogenous development
Two sorts of philosophy for development The philosophy of the Japanese government for development has been single; modernization. The government considers that the happiness of the people will be realized through the modernization. Recently, however, we begin to be aware of the coexistence of two philosophies in the development strategies being carryed out in Japan. Though another new philosophy is still going under several names, we call it ?endogenous development¹.
Modernization Although it is not clear when the following belief was born, most of the people in the world believe happiness is brought about by modernization. Many people of developing countries dreamed to be developed ?ed¹ instead of developing.
What character does ?modernization¹ as a philosophy have? We think it has two characteristics. One is that modernization is like a decided path that any country goes through as a process of development, and countries which are still in the process are expected to ?learn¹ from developed counties to reach the goal. The other is that modernization is a thought which has formed in developed countries, especially in the United States, and its modernization makes you enjoy the high energy- consumption life-style. Of course we know the fact if all countries select this life style, natural settings will be severely damaged.
Endogenous development Then what ideas does the model of endogenous development have? The point is this model has not formed among the nations advanced in an early stage such as the U.S. and Britain, but it has grown among the rather recently advanced nations and the developing nations through variety of local experiences. Therefore, this model admits the fact that there are plural paths to reach the goal; in other words, the model considers that each nation and community should develop through its own path depending on its own regional and cultural backgrounds. This holds the view that so-called ?modernization¹ is a kind of endogenous development for the U.S. and Britain themselves, so it is not regarded as a suitable example for other nations.
Modernization has been thought to be an objective matter as it walks along one decided path, but, from the endogenous development¹s point of view, as there are several paths to choose, each nation or community has to make up its own ideas or standards for the selection by itself. This means endogenous development is ?value-expressive¹, while modernization is ?value-neutral¹ because the latter need not show its value. And also modernization has been adopted as a state strategy but endogenous development is a strategy formed from a local community.
The aim of endogenous development is to make community life well. To do so, first of all, basic needs including foods, health, dwellings and education must be guaranteed. In addition to these, it maintains the harmony between nature and culture of the given community. And also there are some research papers pointing out that the endogenous developments in Asia especially, have the characteristic of emphasizing the spirit as human-beings -- spiritual developments help the real development.
Strategies of the local governments There are two reasons the ideas of these endogenous developments are beginning to be adopted as useful strategies for the local governments. Firstly, the decision-making about the matters of regional areas have become accomplished much more by local governments than the central government compared to the past. Secondly, the influence of the opinions by the inhabitants has grown stronger than before to the decision of local matters.
The central government has utilized the ideas of modernization, but a lot of local governments are going to select endogenous developments also affirming the ideas of modernization. Efforts for regional characteristics and regionally fitting strategies by local governments lead not only the needs of the ideas of modernization, but also of the ideas of endogenous development.
Alternative development When we widen our view to the world-wide, we notice that the endogenous development we are discussing here has similar nuance with alternative development (John Friedmann 1992) which has formed its category in the process to the aids for developing countries. Endogenous development was born in the 1970¹s in Japan, the same period with the forming of alternative development, and in the 1980¹s the former completed its theory. In these 70¹s and 80¹s, people unsatisfied with modernization were looking for another theory of development. Therefore it is possible to consider that endogenous development belongs to a family of alternative development, but the remarkable features of endogenous development are the insistence of ?local ideas¹ and ?local plans¹ made by their local communities.
2 Community Business
Let¹s walk a different way from each other Although we can say that endogenous development was established by Kazuko Tsurumi and others through the field-work in Japan and China, in the areas they visited they met local leaders and scholars who shared the same ideas with them. Therefore, it is possible to say that the idea of endogenous development was not purely established by them, but they organized local ideas which have been effectively used in each local area for their own planning.
For instance, Tsurumi introduces the idea of the Chinese scholar, Xian-Tong Fei, who insists after researching a lange area in China that, for the future development of China, though there are the differences of social conditions for each village, we should not coerce one leading village as an example to the villages all over to adopt, but, after accepting the notion that all our villages have equal political and social status, let¹s walk a different way from each other. This is a totally opposite idea from the one of the Cultural Revolution.
What is a community business in developed countries? In Japan and other developed countries we observe thriving activities of community business or workers collective. Community business is a business for mutual benefits of community members which gets money through community activitiy such as community welfare, environmental protection activities and education based on communities.
This community business shares the same features with endogenous development. Both are based on community, insisting on the decision making by community members themselves and the necessity of socio-public benefits. Endogenous development, however, focuses on the economic development in a community, which community business do not care so much about. The activities of community business are areas in which private firms do not have concerns because of the small benefits, or areas which public organizations do not want to enter admitting the significance for the public welfare. So the activities of a community business is very similar to the ones of NPO.
I think a community business is one of the useful methods a community has to exercise power. Without powerful organizations in a community, sometimes it is very difficult to stop the environmental degradation. If we have powerful and flourishing community organizations, it is rather easy to make community planning by ourselves. The power of a community will change the situation of a community.
JohnFriedmann1982 Enpowerment---the Political Alternative Development, Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Kazuko Tshrumi 1989 Naihatuteki hattenron, Todai Shuppannkai.
Environmental Ethics and Policy of Development
Professor of The Catholic University of Korea, Korea
Poor countries in the world, as testified by the State of World Report(World watch Institute) are invariably areas of environmental destruction. African countries lost their forests and their rivers dried up, and people cannot live but in severe poverty. Recent famine in the North Korea is reportedly also caused by ecological breakdown. It is ironical that people in rich countries consume more resources, and they still enjoy better environment. They may be endowed with better environment and more resources. However, it is also an established fact that the global environment is exploited by the development, and developmental profits are shipped out from the local areas. The poverty and environmental degradation in the poor countries are virtually consequences of over-exploitation of the nature.
This fact reveals following ethical problems:
(1) Environmental destruction may involve the relationship
between nature and human being on local level.
(2) Global environmental degradation may involve the exploitative
relationship between North and South.
(3) World citizens are entitled equal rights for well-being, or
rights to destroy nature for development.
(4) The rich countries should render economic and
technological aids to the developing countries to
rescue them from poverty and to preserve or
recover their environment. Any development
aids should be assessed in terms of their environmental impacts.
(5) People in the developed countries should reshape their life style to the level of global sustainability.
Environmental ethic is a new ethic. Conventional ethics are applied to inter human relationship, whereas environmental ethic is primarily applied to relationship between nature and human beings, and between people of contemporary age and those of future. In the world of interdependence and invisible webs of exchange, we interact with innumerable world citizens, to which our action or inaction may affect. Environmental ethic in a narrow sense will be not sufficient. An understanding of world structure is imperative to shape a new sustainable global governance.
Human Nature and Environmental Education
Adjunct Scholar, University of South Australia, Australia
For the purposes of this forum I take humans to be individually unique beings whose ³nature² emerges from a combination of several dimensions of human-ness. These include physiological, intellectual, emotional, social and spiritual dimensions. Whether our ³nature² is primarily ³natural² or more the consequence of a series of interactions between us and our cultural environments is a question for debate - as is the question of whether our cultural environments are, indeed, ³not natural² as suggested by the first question. However, for convenience I assume here that nature and nurture contribute significantly to all of the facets of our being, our human nature.
I consider effective environmental education (EE) is that which provide for the appropriate development of the four qualities I set out in my earlier address - awareness, skills, motivations and experience of success - by utilising and extending all these qualities. Further, that EE will do so by involving learners in situations which are experiential and issues-based. That is, learners experience ³being there² not merely ³receiving information², and that learners undertake the resolution of problems, or issues. In addition, learners explore locations and issues which are essentially local. The issues learners explore, if not the locations, will always have regional and global dimensions - the Earth is possessed of a ³one-ness² which science is coming to understand and which indigenous peoples have appreciated for millennia even though sociopolitical boundaries and the cultural insularity of most societies denies it.
My intention in this contribution is to suggest that in attending to all these qualities, experiences, issues and one-ness of the Earth EE has evolved into an approach of increasing significance in the life-long preparation of people to become more and more involved in safeguarding the welfare of the Earth and all its entities. What EE has largely ignored, however, in mainstream Australia - and mainstream Everywhere I suggest - is human spirituality and the necessity for humans to realise an even greater one-ness than that of the whole Earth as an object separate from them. It is that humans and the Earth are also of a one-ness, that what we do to the Earth we do to ourselves. Accepting all this, what is an EE which satisfies human nature?
2. The constituents of an EE appropriate to human nature
2.1 sensory experiences - the sights, sounds, tastes, smells and feel of earth, wind, water and light and the sense of moving among all these Earth elements - so that physiological senses of place are established.
2.2 intellectual experiences - activities generating, satisfying and extending curiosity about objects, organisms, phenomena and ideas - so that inequities and issues are identified.
2.3 emotional experiences - development of a consciousness of what is attractive and what is to be avoided and the consequences of those preferences - identifying preparedness to act to improve situations.
2.4 social/cooperative experiences - practice of cooperative interactions in a variety of spheres - so that situations, relationships are improved. If we accept that this is just good education then activities which don't do these things do not constitute education. They lead to the self denial of our bodies, minds, hearts and companionsense - and to inevitable personal, social and planetary illness. But ³sound² education, ethical education will also include -
2.5 spiritual experiences - the identification of learners with the Earth as part of it. Learners come to see themselves having a connectness with the Earth that is like that with their own family. They have not the same body but same substance.
3. Changing the significance of EE components
Rather than just adding ³spirituality² at the end of a series of EE activities perhaps we need to change the importance of these components. Instead of sensing, then intellectualising, and then exploring emotions and acting logically, what if we sensed and drew sustenance and inspiration, out of which came things created, and perhaps useful ideas and a conspiration, a ³breathing together² to tend ourselves and the Earth?
In Western and Northern societies we are preoccupied with doing. There is so much to be done that we often have little sense of being, and in the sense of these remarks, of belonging. It has been said that the exhortation ³Don't just sit there, do something!² should be reversed to ³Don't just do something, sit there!² And that when there is doing to be done we should not let it be like the well known ³Just do it². We should let the doing be a one more obviously contemplative, and less manipulative, than it is now.
If that occurs then we are more likely to appreciate, in the words of Australian indigenous peoples, that we belong to the Earth, that it does not belong to us.
We might give more time in our encounters with learners in schools and communities to notions that we should learn to think like a mountain, and to questions such as ³Who speaks for the tress for the trees?² and ³Do rocks have rights?²
4. Getting real
In practice we might need to reverse the order of importance in EE of, for example, science and the arts. We might spend more time critiquing - and criticising - those forces of global and environmental mis-education identified in part in my earlier address. We might explore ³legal fictions² like ³waste² and ³resources² and ³development².
A central theme of this symposium is ethics - or what is sound. I suggest that most EE is unsound, is incomplete, is unethical if it leaves learners spiritually depauperate with no sense of self and earthness. They remain easy prey to those who corrupt our spirituality and make us dependent not on our natural state of earth connectedness but on consumer goods and political creeds.
Literature and Environment from a Canadian Perspective
Associate Professor of Konan University, Canada
To the fundamental questions presented by literature, Canadians offer their own vein of inquiry, pursuing not only the ageless questions 'who am I? and what am I doing here?' --questions involving the human condition-- but also the question, where is here? As a former British colony, Canada is of course partly defined as not Britain, and the first writers in Canada responded to the contrasts provided by the new landscape and conditions of life in the New World. At the same time, Canada is also defined by not being America; thus, part of the ongoing project of the Canadian writer is to explore and uncover what there might be of a distinctive Canadian identity. Yet throughout our rather short literary history Canadian literature has often centrally involved the environment and our response to it.
To examine at how Canadian literature looks at nature will involve looking at the conditions of exploring and colonizing the country three hundred years ago , and more importantly, in examining the views of the settlers toward the nature they encountered. It is probably no coincidence that western man conceives of nature as woman then proceeds to dominate and subjugate her. There is a demonstrable relationship between the ways in which men treat and destroy women and the ways in which men treat and destroy nature.
Today Canadian literature is presenting an alternative to a man-centered way of seeing our environment. The corrective vision offered by the Native peoples of Canada have been instrumental in helping to see ourselves as part of a whole, as part of a system, and not the most important part of it, as we had so long believed. As many voices of the Native people of Canada have become vocal in the presentation of a sustainable way to live, it becomes possible for us to revise our earlier and mistaken views of the world in which we live.
The study of literature is a means among many in helping us reseeour surroundings and find new possibilities of living on the earth. The study of literature and environment can provide a way to integrate the worlds of technology with the world of imagination to help us to question our accepted ways of doing things.
The Basic Environment Law in Japan and Human Rights
Professor of Konan University, Japan
1. High-degree economic growth and the occurrence of environmental pollution problems.
In Japan, the economy accomplished high-degree growth from the 1960s to the 1970s. Problems of environmental pollution occurred with this growth. Minamata disease occurred both on the coast of Minamata gulf in Kumamoto Prefecture and in the valley of the Agano River in Nigata Prefecture. The Itaiitai disease occurred in the valley of the Zinzu River in Toyama Prefecture. Asthmatic patients increased at Yokkaichi City, in Mie Prefecture. The Kumamoto Minamata disease, the Nigata Minamata disease, the Itaiitai disease, and the Yokkaichi asthma became serious social problems due to the four forms of significant environmental pollution.
2.The importance of the court in relieving the sufferers of illness due to pollution.
The sufferers by the four significant environmental pollutions insisted on compensation for their damages against the enterprises involved from 1967 to 1969. The court advised the companies to compensate for the damages from 1971 to 1972. The solution about the problems of environmental pollution is brought about not by the management of the government but by the court. The law of relief was the Civil Law.
3.The establishment of Environmental Pollution Control Law.
The necessity to overcome environmental pollution intentionally and comprehensively by the government had risen, and the Environmental Pollution Control Law was established in 1967. This law defined environmental pollution, as including seven areas such as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise, vibration, ground subsidence and offensive odors (Article 2), and clarified the responsibility of the enterprise, the state, the local public bodies and the residents.
4.The occurrence of the problems of Global Environment.
The degeneration of the environment on a global scale was appearing from the middle to the end of the 1980s. It was reported that the ozonic layer is being destroyed by CFC and halon, carbonic acid gas is being increased by mass use of fuel, coal and oil etc. The temperature of earth is also rising.
In June of 1992, International Congress relating to environment and development was held at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and an International agreement for preservating the global environment came into existence.
5.The establishment of the Basic Environmental Law.
In these situations, in November of 1993, Basic Environmental Law was established in Japan. This law clarifies three things as a basic concept. The first is that present and future generations, enjoy the blessings of rich environment, and that to be inherited in the future. The second is to structure a society which can sustain development. The third is active promotion of global environmental conservation through international cooperation.
6.The Basic Environmental Law and human rights (especially for Environmental Rights)
The nation has a right to enjoy the blessings of the environment. Basic Environmental Law regulated as follows concerning the content of Environmental Rights, a sound environment should be sustained for present generation who can spend their lives in healthy and civilized life, and for future generations who can benefit from the fruits of the Environment (Article 3).
Humanity and Company Ethics
Professor of Konan University, Japan
These days companies are really searching for various ways of reducing environmental problems, and putting them into action concretely. But because of the long economic depression in Japan, we cannot deny that it tends to be secondary in importance for companies to maintain this priority.
From the international point of view, the standardization of environmental management systems has been achieved rapidly since the 1990's. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) discussed considering the possibilities of this system, and published " ISO14001 Environmental management systems : Specification with guidance for use "on September, 1996, and four other requirements of environmental management systems.
In such a movement, Japan started to accept these systems as " Environmental JIS ". Up to now (at the end of December, 1997), the number of companies which were given certification came to 618. In the past, most of them were manufacturing industries such as electricity or machinery, involved in exports to the West (Where there is a high interest in environmental problems). But now, this trend is spreading to non - manufacturing and service industries like the construction and distribution industries, even to minor enterprises, as various counter plans are considered. The way of getting the certification varies. The unit is becoming larger : from each factory to each company or group. Getting the certification of ISO 14001 is now indispensable for companies to extend their operations or to elevate their power for competition. For example, "Green Supply Companies" are spreading, which means they are able to purchase materials which aren't harmful to the environment preferentially.
In spite of that, we cannot say that recent environmental problems are solved by getting certification of ISO 14001. Because the standard is for a continuous improvement by the introduction of Environmental management systems, but it doesn't provide requirements for environmental performance. In the sense, we cannot see any approaches that take a new look at " high grade economic activities" as a cause of environmental problems.
It is needless to say that it is essential to think about " high grade economic activities " again and establish a new life style. In the recent ethics of companies, for example, the ICC Business Charter for Sustainable Development and CERES Principle, however, we cannot find any points of view like this.
In fact, it's very difficult to re-examine the "high grade economical activities," and approaches to it aren't recognized clearly.
So I'm going to state the basis of how we have to think about that.
Environmental Art with Sound and Color
Representative of Feeling Art
Feeling Art is an art of sensibility which Yoshihiro Kitamura, a modern artist, creates on the canvas, painting abstract forms with acrylic colors, mud and Chinese ink. He illuminates the canvas with blue, red, yellow, and green lights, accompanied by music. Responding to the lights and music, each viewer perceives different images in the art work, according to their own sensibilities. The themes of the work include "nature", "the ground", "the earth", "space", and "life".
Seeking to explore more deeply his Feeling Art concept, Kitamura has presented his work at a variety of locations, such as the Tsukuba Science Exposition, Osaka Citizens Art Festival, and the Germany-Japan Center in Berlin (a former Japanese embassy)
In the meantime his work has taken a new turn since his child was hospitalized for an operation. Through his experiences at the hospital, he came to ponder deeply the power of art to heal pain and ease agony. Since eight years ago he has presented his shows at institutions for handicapped people,hospices, and medical and environmental symposia. Then he has related his Feeling Art to the fields of medicine and welfare, and made it his life work to establish a "focus on life" beyond art.
Since the Great Hanshin Earthquake of January 1995, he has visited many shelters and has presented his Feeling Art in stricken areas several times. In 1996 he presented his work at the Kobe City Central Mind Care Center, a symposium of Mind and Body Medical Institute for Children, Kobe Life-Line, and International Health and Medical Action Science Organization. In 1997 he showed his work at the Earth Citizens Fiesta '97 (sponsored by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and the Tokyo International Exchange Foundation) and went around to ten temporary housing areas sponsored by the Kobe City Central Mind Care Center.
Feeling Art is sometimes called "an ink drawing that uses light instead of ink", and viewers respond differently, saying, "I feel as if I were floating in space", "I can see angels", "I feel as if I were in the sea", or "This is just like an avenue in Europe." As the image expands, the person experiences feelings of ecstasy and joy in the mind. It is like a personal message to oneself.
Once he presented his work to a child so heavily handicapped, both mentally and physically, that he was unable to change his facial expression. However, after the performance the child started crying. The teacher at the institution was surprised to see the child's tears and said, "Art is exactly what they need!" Enjoying the fantastic lights and nostalgic music or sound in the dark can bring one deep relaxation. One viewer at a hospice said in appreciation that she could sleep well that night, even facing death.
Believing that one can be restored to peace of mind by seeing beautiful things, Kitamura has been hoping to heal the fatigue of both sufferers and the volunteers who help them through his quest into art with light and sound, with his independent group.
The Issues of Technology and Human Nature
on Environmental Ethics and Environmental Education
Konan University, Japan
Through the discussions of the Special Speech, Memorial Speeches, the first session ofÅgTechnology and Natural Environment", and the second session ofÅgHuman Nature and Social Environment" we have been given valuable insights by panelists from Thailand, China, Korea, Canada, Australia, and Japan. At this third session we would like to develop the discussions on "the Issues of Technology and Human Nature on Environmental Ethics and Environmental Education."
At Memorial Speech each panelists delivered talks which were based on each indigenous places, such as about the ecologicalizing of technology, economic, and social movements by Mr. Dexian, the sustainable, alternative agriculture by Mr. Soondarotok, the thoughts on preservation of the environment from the viewpoints of the First Nations in Canada by Ms. Turner, the Global Education and practice of Environmental Education in Australia by Mr. Smith, the development of Environmental Education in Japan by Mr. Suzuki.
At Symposium I "Technology and Natural Environment" under the guidelines of the Chair Mr. Ota and Commentator Mr. Suzuki the issue of Technology on Natural Environment was focalized. Mr. Suzuki insisted on making good of technology cared about environment and ecological circulation. Corresponding to his idea of the harmony between agriculture and climate by Mr. Soondarotok, the radioactive weapons and their future by Mr. Dexian, the influence of technology upon the ecosystem by Ms. Turner, and the problems of endocrine disrupting chemicals by Mr. Imai were presented one after another. All of the presentations were concerned with how strong is the effect of technology on humans. We have carried out serious destruction by the problems of power stations and radioactive rays, the matters of endocrine disrupting chemicals called "environmental hormones". We should utilize technology positively for helping this natural damage to recover.
Such a theme regarding natural environment, science, and technology must be related to the theme of Symposium II "Human Nature and Social Environment" correspondingly. Under the guidelines of the Chair Mr. Fujimoto, and Commentator Mr. Torigoe the issue on humanity on the social environment was focalized. Mr. Torigoe linked up endogenous development with Sustainable development, and gave us practical perspective for discussions with Alternative development and Community business. Mr. Lee insisted on expanded environmental ethics which consider more intrinsic values such as humans and nature, the present and future, developed countries and developing countries. Mr. Smith presented new viewpoints about innovation the environmental education on the natural environment. Ms. Ford delivered a talk on the necessity of providing a way to integrate the worlds of technology with the worlds of imagination through Environmental Literature. Mr. Siomi conveyed the transition from environmental pollution to environmental problems and the establishment of Environmental Pollution Control Law. Mr. Nakamaru presented how enterprises cope with environmental problems and put environmental management system into action. All of these issues clarified the fact that various pollution and destruction of the environment are connected to humanity itself. In that sense environmental ethics is indispensable.
At this Symposium III "the issue of Technology and Human Nature on Environmental Ethics and Environmental Education" including all the ideas which have been provided in the various sessions, we would like to develop the discussion more deeply.
At the Student Congress Mr. Dexian reported in his special speech that environmental education has been expanded at Peking University. This was "environmental studies" encourages students and researchers to research and study environmental problems through university education, school education, social education, person-holding education rather than the environmental education under the school curriculum system. In that sense in the last session environmental education can be across the curriculum. However, the definition of the education would be vague. For instance in terms of "time" this education contains home education, school education including elementary, secondary, higher levels and further education. In terms of "space" the education takes place in the school system, non-school system such as outdoor activities, adult education, and lifelong education. I expect all panelists can clarify their own ideas about environmental ethics and education in paying attention to which levels they discuss.
As the first subject emphasized we would like to deepen the issue on "science and technology". On the one hand, from the viewpoints of environmental education we want to argue on the following points. Which should be the subject in environmental problems in order to recover natural conditions? How can science and technology cope with environmental problems? On the other hand, from the viewpoints of environmental ethics we want to focus on practical themes. For instance, we can centralize the problems of radioactive and endocrine disrupter chemicals as the matters of connected with human lifestyle.
According to Symposium I, I would like all panelists who participated in the session to make comments on either environmental ethics or education. First, both Mr. Dexian and Mr. Murakami will represent their ideas about environmental ethics as scientists focusing on the keywords, such as nature, science, technology, moral sense of scientists, and their subjectivity. Second, both Mr. Soondarotok and Ms. Turner will represent their thought how environmental education can develop concerning nature, science and technology.
As the second subject emphasized we would like to deepen the issue on Åghumanity" concerning the social environment. How can we treat environmental problems on the social level in order to retrieve sound humanity? If we are reigned over by technology too much, inhumane people will appear and ignore company ethics, and pollution problems and natural destruction would occur. We discuss how can unsound human regain their sound humanity through environmental ethics and education. That must be a crucial theme for 21st century.
According to Symposium II using keywords such as the definition of sound/unsound, sustainable development of society, regional community, mind environment and social morals both Mr. Torigoe and Mr. Lee will present about environmental ethics, and Mr. Smith will discuss environmental education.
Professor of Peking University.
Born in China. Graduated from Peking University. Major: nuclear physics. He does teaching and research work in radiation protection and management. Published over 20 articles and 6 books, "An Introduction to Radiation Protection" and so on.
Environmental Educator of Thailand.
Born in Thailand, 1950. Graduated from Kasertsart University. Major: Environmental Education. He also manages student environmental camps. Published some books about environmental Education Management and so on. At present, Assistant Professor in Agriculture Department of Rajabhat Institute Phranakon.
Nancy J. Turner
Professor, School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria
Graduated from University of British Columbia Department of Botany. Major, Environmental Studies; the role of plants in nutrition, technology, health care, language, and narratives, and on traditional land and resource management. Published many books such as Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America, with Dr. Szczawinski, and Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use, with Dr. Harriet Kuhnlein. At present, Professor in the School of Environmental Studies at the University of Victoria.
Professor of the Catholic University of Korea
Born in Korea, 1948. Graduated from Seoul University. Major, Sociology. Published on some books such as ³Tasks and Directions of the Social Movements in Korea in the 1990s², ³Korea's Anti-Nuclear Power Plant Movement and Changes in Local Societies², ³A Study on the Failure of Recycling System--A Case Study of Puchon City in Korea², and so on. At present, Professor of Environmental Sociology at the Catholic University of Korea.
Editor of the Journal of the Australian Association for Environmental Education
Born in London, England in 1945. Major, Environmental Education. present editor of the Journal of the Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) and a member of that organization¹s executive. Invited to present in June 1996 an address ³Environmental issues and Environmental Education in Australia² at the International Environmental Education symposium commemorating the 120th anniversary of Kyoto University of Education.
Professor of Osaka Kyoiku University
Born in Yokohama, 1933. Graduated from Tokyo Kyoiku University. Major: Environmental Education. Published many books about environmental Education Management and so on. Present, Professor of Osaka Kyoiku University.
Professor of Konan University, Director of the Center of Informational Education
Graduated from Konan University. Major, Nuclear and Natural Environment. Published on many papers, such as Periodic Orbits in Elliptic Billiards, Memoirs of Konan University, Sci, Ser, 1990. Classical periodic orbits in spheroidal cavity-Prolate Case-Memoirs of the Konan University, Sci, Ser, 1991. Preequilibrium versus thermalised Light-charged particle emissions in the Mgreection, Dynamical Calculations, Zeitschrift, fur Physiks A 339, 1991. Tour Symposium on Nuclear Physics, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 1992
Professor of Konan University
Graduated from Osaka University. Major, Information of Environment. Published many books, such as The progress of Computer and Mathematical Education -The Influence of Computers and Information on Mathematics and its Teaching, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980. Mathematical Education to Engineering Students -Mathematics as a Service Subject, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988. Teaching Mathematics to Students not Majoring in Mathematics -Proceedings of ICM90 Springier Verlag. 1991.
Kobe Institute of Health
Graduated from konan University. Major, Chemistry. Published some paper about environmental issue and so on. At present, Kobe Institute of Health, Japan.
Professor of Konan University
Graduated from Kyoto University. Major, Economies. Published on many books and papers, Tokyo-Zentralismus, Konan Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.5, 1994. At present, Professor of Konan University.
Professor of Kansei Gakuin University
Graduated from Tokyo Kyoiku University. Major, Environmental Sociology. Published many books. Present, Professor of Kansei Gakuin University, President of the Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology.
Associate Professor of Konan University
Born in Vancouver, Canada in 1956, Anna Ford has lived in Japan for eight years. Before coming to Konan University five years ago, she taught in a West African Village for two years. Interested in Nature Preservation as well as literature and environment. She teaches English language and literature at Konan University.
Professor of Konan University
Vice President, Konan University, Professor of Law of Konan University. Books: Lecture of civil law 6 (1997), Introduction to law on real rights and obligations in civil law (1994). Articles: Remedy for reflex damages of third party in torts, Rokkodai Ronshu Vol.17, 2-4 (1970-1971). Torts between near relations, Journal of Kobe University of Commerce Vol.26, 1 (1974). Suits for environmental pollution and compensation for damages, Hanrei Times, 311-314 (1974-1975). Pollution-caused disease and restitution, Tochi Mondai Sosho 14 (1980).
Professor of Konan University
Graduated from Kobe University. Major, Management. Published on some books about Management and so on. At present, Professor of Konan University.
Professor of Konan University
Graduated from Osaka University. Major, Philosophy and Ethics. Published many books and papers about Philosophy, Ethics, Environmental Education, and psychology. Late discuttion of Symposium ?96 at Konan University, Visiting Professor of Hebei Univesity, Pejing Educational Engineer-Commercial University, Rajabhat Institute Phranakon, University of Victoria. At present, professor of Konan University.
Peking University students
Born in 1973. Graduated from depertment of urban and environmental science, Peking University. Majored in environmental and ecological science. Degree, B.S. Graduation Thesis, " The emviromenatal Impact Assement of Public Policy facing the Sustainable Development." Postgraduate, depertment of urban and environmental science. Speciality, Environmental engineering. Be honored with the Excellent Student Scholarship in Social Work for the 1994, 1995, and 1996 academic year by peking University, etc. Erected the president of the World Commission on Economics and Development.
Born in 1972. Graduated from the depertment of urban and environment, Peking University. Majored in environment. Degree, B.S. Graduation thesis, "Analysis of the SO2 pollution characterristic and its causes in the atomosphere above BaoNan District, Shenzhen City." Present, the depertment of urban and environment, Peking university, for M.S. Specialty, environmental science. Be honored with the Excellent Student Scholarship for the 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1997 Academic year by Peking University, etc.
The executive secretary of the World Commission on Economics and Development
Born in 1971. Graduated from depertment of Foreign Language, Jilin University. Present, the depertment of Oriental, Peking University. Specialty, Japanese literature.
Born in 1965. Graduated from the department of literature, Konan University. Research student. Majored in environmental ethics. Member of Japan association of environmental education, Japan academy for hearth behavioral science, Kansai asossiation of ethics. Interest, deformed monkys and Minamata disease.
Born in 1974. Graduated from the department of literature, Konan University. Research student. Majored in environmental psychology. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral of science. Interest, environmental education from view point of educational psychology.
Born in 1973. Graduated from the department of literature, Konan University. Research student. Majored in environmental ethics. Member of Japan association of environment education. Interest, ecology from view point of aethetic harmony.
Born in 1973. Graduated from the department of literature, Konan University. Research student. Majored in studies of environment. Member of Japan environmental education. Interest, the way of involving in men and rivers. Å@Å@Å@
Born in 1976. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in philosophy. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, the mental environment through juvenile litereture.
Born in 1976. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in ecology. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, the issue of resycle and waste probrem.
Born in 1976. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in phycology. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, belonging to tourism study session and researches that the effect of influence of nature by tourism and tourism concern with nature.
Born in 1976. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in life ethics. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, ethics of concering environment and life.
Born in 1975. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in studies of environment. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, belonging to exploration club and research natural environment through the experiences of wild life.
Born in 1977. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in pshycology. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, environment of developing mind.
Born in 1976. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in pshycology. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, mental situation of young generation.
Born in 1977. Junior of the department of literature, Konan University. Majored in studies of environment. Member of Japan association of environmental education and Japan academy for hearth behavioral science. Interest, ecology of plants and animals.
Norihiko Nakanishi (President, Konan Univ.)
Morimasa Ogawa (Chairperson of Trustees of Konan Gakuen)
Fumiaki Taniguchi (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Zenji Suzuki (Professor, Osaka-Kyoiku Univ.)
Hidenari Yoshizawa (Vice-President, Konan Univ.)
Kazuo Shiomi (Vice-President, Konan Univ.)
Hakobu Nakamura (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Tetsuya Hisatake (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Hironobu Nakamaru (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Atsuo Murakami (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Masahisa Ota (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Kaoru Takasaka (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Akira Fujita (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Sunao Hori (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Tateo Fujimoto (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Goiti Gaku (Professor, Konan Univ.)
Yoshiko Kobayashi (Lecturer, Konan Univ.)
Anna Ford (Lecturer, Konan Univ.)
Yoshihiko Yamamoto (Kyoto Univ.)
Takashi Tsuchida (Kyoto Seika Univ.)
Osamu Abe (The Japan Society of E. E.)
Yuichi Inoue (Nara Sangyou Univ.)
Takashi Natsume (Kobe Gakuin Univ.)
Hiroyuki Torigoe (Kansei Gakuin Univ.)
Jyn Yamashita (Kobe Univ.)
Kenichi Sudo (Kobe Univ.)
Shigeru Tanaka (Ottemon Gakuin Univ.)
Tadashi Akao (GEC)
Sakingo Imai (Kobe City Hall)
Keisuke Toda (Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo)
Yukiyasu Ishigami (Konan Univ.)
Makoto Kitamura (Lawyer)
Fujikawa Ryuichiro (Kobe City Hall)
Yasuhiro Kikuchi (Hyogo Prefectural Office)
Makoto Honjyo (Nara Pref. Koriyama E.School)
Masao Amano (Konan Univ.)
Shiho Fukushima (Konan Univ.)
Yasuko Kamata (Konan Univ.)