The Record of Professor Taniguchi's Seminar
-- Learning Through Practical Activity --
Konan Univ. Research Student
Prof. Taniguchi is teaching not only logical and philosophical studies but also really practical studies: for example, the pollution and environmental issue at Konan University. In the field work, we went to Minamata City (In 1988, 1992) where Minamata disease had broken out. And we investigated the issue of deformed monkeys in Shyodoshima-island (in 1986), Awajisima-island (in 1990, 1993, 1996, 1998), Okayama Pref. (in 1991), Hiroshima Pref. (in 1994), Kumamoto Pref. (in 1994) and Yakushima-island (in 1994). We studied the issue of food additives and the practice of agriculture at Nara Pref. (in 1987) and Saitama Pref. (in 1989, this time we met Mr. and Mrs. Maruki who are world famous artists). Besides, we have also been working on a farm in Ichijima-chyo Hyogo Pref. since 1990.
1. The issue of Minamata disease -- Social Environment Destruction --
We have been to Minamata City twice, and we saw the fact of environmental destruction and pollution. The first time, we met with Akira Sunada who lives there and has put on plays about the Minamata disease. And then, we met with Masazumi Harada who has studied the Minamata disease from stand point of medicine at the beginning of the Minamata disease. And we met three patients suffering from Minamata disease, and I happened upon a patient of unborn baby's Minamata disease; that is to suffer from mercury poisoning in the mother's womb. And I listened to the lecture about what has happened and "what is happening" in this city, from the member of a support group of patients of the Minamata disease. At this time, he emphasized not only the past but also current issues on the Minamata disease. At the beginning of the disease, the biggest concern was the patients who have the typical symptoms of the mercury poisoning that is called "Hunter-Lussel syndrome". And then, the embryonic Minamata disease was discovered by Masazumi Harada. Right now, the biggest concern is patients that do not show typical symptoms, the delayed Minamata disease and the chronic Minamata disease.
2. The issue of Deformed Monkey -- Natural Environment Destruction --
We met Mr. Nakahashi and Mr.& Mrs. Nobuhara on Awajisima-island. And we met Prof. Yoshihiro, Mr. Kikuma and Mr. Kanaizuka when we studied the ecology of Japanese monkey in Miyajima-island. The deformed monkey have been found on Awajishima-island since the 1960's. The famous deformed monkey "the mirror foot" that was first recorded there was born in 1969. Right now, deformed monkey represent about ten percent of all of new babies. The cause of deformity is to think of food additives because it happen to start the feeding, and connected with the rapid growth of the economy in Japan (1971-1972). The deformed monkey and this mother have more agricultural chemicals (especially ethoxycarbonyl "Malathion") in its liver than healthy ones. Therefore, it is thought that the cause of deform monkey is the factor of environment.
3. The observation of Nature and Nature Studies -- To work towards a solution of the problem --
We experienced the wonder and beauty of nature in the field work. We have been to Aso-mountain and Miyanouradake-mounten in Kyusyu Prif. Especially, we get deep emotion by a few thousand year old tree "Yakusugi." And we are working on a farm in Ichijima-chyo, and we labored on soil.
The beautiful Nature in Japan was getting less and less, in contrast with increase environmental destruction. If the outside environment is destroyed by environmental destruction, the inside environment, that is, mind will be destroyed. Therefore, it is very important to study nature and, of course, human nature through Environmental Education, and we have to raise children¹s environmental awareness by Environmental Ethics
The Destruction of the Ecosystem in the Natural Environment
On the research of deformed monkeys-
Yuka Takebayashi, Keiko Hamada, Riwa Watanabe
Konan University, the department of literature
1.The connection between deformed monkeys and the pollution of food
Today, a disordered ecosystem is present around us, sacrificing numerous lives. We presently understand that 22 kinds of animals are already extinct, and that 110 kinds of those are endangered species in Japan. In such destructions of the ecosystem, our seminar has focused on the monkeys, which have been fed and have some deformations. We have been to the Awaji Monkeys Center to conduct research in focusing on this problem. Food additives (mainly, food coloring, preservatives, etc.), agricultural chemicals, the remains of chemicals (chlorinated organic compounds e.g.Dieldrin) containing in food made the monkeys deformed. They show the following deformities : clenched-fingers, added-fingers (called mirror-feet), bent-fingers, short-fingers, missing-fingers, a hand with one finger, branched-fingers, and so on. The number of monkeys which have serious pollen allergy is also increasing in recent years. Humans also eat the same kinds of food which the monkeys eat : mainly wheat, soybeans, peanuts, oranges and apples, etc. Pollution by both agricultural chemicals and food additives which caused the occurrence of deformed monkeys, should make us realize problems about the safety of food in modern Japan. Keeping in mind that our food management is related to sustaining the ecosystem, because now we are standing at the top of the food-chain.
2. Complex pollution and present eating habits
"Complex Pollution" written by Sawako Ariyoshi in the 1970s, warns us about the present circumstances of pollution on the basis of eatig habits. It gives a definition of complex pollution as the following : it is said that we are polluted by two or more kinds of harmful chemicals. As a result a synergetic effect by two or more kinds of harmful chemicals occurs. For example, it is said we breathe the air poisoned by exhaust gas, eat the rice poisoned by agricultural chemicals, use the miso (soybean paste) made from imported wheat and soybeans that use agricultural chemicals. We do not know the facts and what kinds of agricultural chemicals are used at all. We make miso soup containing preservatives and monosodium glutamate. We eat Tsukudani (small fish or seaweed boiled down with soysauce and sugarÅjcontaining food coloring. Also we eat vegetables containing agricultural chemicals that are different from chemicals found in rice, and drink Japanese tea containing insecticides and coloring. As above, we are continually putting various chemical into our bodies by food additives-eighty kinds of them a day. Furthermore, when the effects of food additives and air pollution are taken together, this becomes hundreds of kinds. This story was from twenty years ago. Today, we are also surrounded by Environmental Estrogens Endocrine Disruptor. The problems by endocrines are warned about in "Our Stolen Future" (written by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, John Peterson Myers). In order to cope with these significant problems, we should get the information and knowledge of our polluted circumstances. Particularly, better awareness of these "eating habits" should be promoted ; we have to start to know about the polluted conditions of "eating".
3.The problems of deformed monkeys and the global environment in the future
In 1997, thirty monkeys were born. Among them five had deformities and three had deformed limbs. One of the reasons why monkeys are deformed is agricultural chemicals in food. Particularly, it is said that chloride organic agricultural chemicals cause cancers and deformities. They remain and accumulate easily in man's body. Although using some of them is prohibited in Japan, but foreign countries can use them. Monkeys eat imported grain, and agricultural chemicals remain in their bodies little by little. Then, deformed monkeys appear. We also live in the same surroundings as monkeys, and eat the same food as monkeys. So problems of deformities may have been occurring to us, too. We must recognize that they'll appear in humans too. Monkeys are merely sacrificed as an early warning signal. We must look at these facts more closely, or these problems would continue till posterity. The destruction of the ecosystem brings intensified problems in the Global Environment to us and it will form a crisis to future generations.
Social Environmental Problems in Japan
-Environmental Problems and Recycling-
Miho Kuyama, Madoka Asakura
Konan University, the department of literature
1.The occurrence of Environmental Pollution and measures against it
In Japan, Environmental Pollution (causing Minamata disease, Yokkaiti asthma, Itaiitai disease) occurred at a period of high economic growth from the 1960's. Since then, Japanese citizens realized Environmental Pollution was a social problem. In order to control these situations, the Japanese government established "Environmental Pollution Control Law (1967)". Following this law, "Atmosphere Pollution Control Law (1968)" and "Water Pollution Control Law (1970)" were established. It is said that the damage which was caused by Environmental Pollution is decreasing due to citizen's enhanced consciousness of the crisis in environmental problems and their movement, established those laws. They have strengthened surveillance systems and the standard of discharge of polluted matters with the formation of the Environment Agency (1971).
2.The growth of interest in global environmental problems and the spread of citizens' movements By the experiences of serious Environmental Pollution, the interest in the environment which is so close to our life had appeared. Gradually, it spread globally with the knowledge of destruction and pollution of the natural environment in order to preserve natural resources (for example wood and oil). On the other hand, with the overuse of natural resources, enormous waste can not be treated. But so far, in Japan, we have lacked awareness that we were assaulters of the environment by throwing away waste, so the waste problems were not considered important. When we began to realize our responsibility by the growth of serious waste problems, the "3R-movement (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)" which was advocated in Germany has been spreading gradually. Especially in Japan, the Recycle-movement has been popular, and collecting packages of milk, cans and bottles has been promoted. Recently, following to these movements, separating the garbage has become a natural thing to do all over Japan.
3.Recycling and serious waste problems
However, is it true that Recycling is the best solution for waste problems? Recycling is only a negative solution for a circulating system of human society. We can't save natural resources, which is our fundamental problem, by the present Recycling system. At the same time, it is pointed out that new problems of energy and cost are brought about by Recycling. Waste was thought to be weeded out in the ecosystem primarily, but poisonous matters (dioxin, etc) are made at the process of its disposal. Then, these matters are changed in ways too difficult to resolve in nature due to for humans' overuse of chemicals such as organic chlorine compounds (like vinyl chloride,etc).
As a result, the waste of chemicals still remains. Whether Recycling is useful or not, we must realize if we keep on using those chemicals without the presupposition that we can recycle, it is not a complete solution for problems of environmental pollution and waste disposal. It is also important to choose goods in order to make waste as resolvable as possible, and Japanese have to change our lifestyle. For the company, it is desirable to reduce using goods which are difficult to break down in nature.
After the consideration of those social environmental problems in Japan, we would like to point out that it is necessary to change the present trend of society and, we think that we must tackle Environmental Problems not only in Japan but more globally.
The Mental Environment of young people
Harue Shimamoto, Noriko Hiraoka, Yumiko Morioka
Konan University, the department of literature
1.The progress of Civilization and Cultural degeneration
We have believed that the more civilization progresses, the more human beings will be happy. Therefore we have made an effort to develop our civilization. But civilization has both advantages and disadvantages at the same time. If the advantages in Japanese civilized society are conveniences, one of the disadvantages is the situation which creates a lot of simplistic and impulsive people. A mature society in Japan has resulted from the progress of civilization, but this culture has degenerated. The young generation who grew up surrounded by all kinds of things and takes them for granted, can't wait, to create and achieve to get something when they want it. And in modern society where there is an overflow of too much information, it is difficult to establish our independence and sense of values. Young people become passive due to this excess of information.
2. Distortion of young people's minds in a mature society
When young people meet the basic requirements such as something to eat, live and wear, next, instead of establishing independence, they are interested in the outside, evaluating others and aesthetic values. They also try to be more beautiful. Young people start feeling dissatisfied only to purchase something, then trying to be different from others. With fashion, when they seek a difference in design and qualities in things from others and acquire them, they think that this difference is their individuality and self assertion. We can say the same thing about food. People aren't satisfied with normal food. They seek food that is delicious and rare. As a proof we can see a lot of words which express these qualities, "genuine taste" "high-grade taste" and "gourmet taste". It seems that these conditions represent a mature society.
Now Japanese children go to cram school when they are only students of primary school. If they don't go to cram school, after school they play TV games in their own room. So when they grow up, they do not have the ability to have personal relations, and have more shallow friendships recently. By forming a nuclear family, communications with others are decreased for children more than before. That means the lack of family unity. The way of living of young people becomes more and more individualistic. They seek only their own pleasure. Indeed if we compare Japan with other countries, Japanese people tend to be more individualistic than other advanced countries' people. They hardly think about the environmental problems and the whole of society.
3. Global Environmental thinking from a point of view of the Mental Environment
Paradoxically speaking, it seems obvious that civilized society has partially made humans more incomplete and immature. By civilized society, not only the Natural and Social Environment, but also the Mental Environment been destroyed. In Japan the problems of students refusing to go to school, bullied children and impulsive crimes by involving knives have increased in recent years. These would give us a crisis signal. Human beings have sacrificed the valuable things by the progress of civilization. We should never fail to consider young people's minds as a light issue in discussing the Global Environment in the 21st century. We want to think about the Global Environment in our future from the viewpoint of the Mental Environment of young people.
³Environmental Ethics and Environmental Education:
The Issues on Technology and Human Nature²
Research Student,Konan University
1. The Necessity of Environmental Ethics and Environmental Education
Due to the Natural Environment's degradation, the matter of deformed monkeys has come to our attention and the problems of Environmental Estrogens Endocrine Disruptor has resulted in making not only all people but also all forms of life encounter the crisis of their survival. In order to make a social environment, that has a stronger relation with the natural environment and produces less damage, the Recycling Movement and Environmental Policy have been put into place. However, it is not enough for preserving nature. Also both Natural and Social degradations influence man's Mental Environment, especially mature modern society in Japan.
So as to resolve various problems concerning the Environment and to protect Global conditions for future generations, it is urgent to carry out ÅgEnvironmental Education" for raising people's consiousness of Environmental Preservation. At the same time, it is necessary to build up Environmental Ethics as part of the philosophy of Education.
In this presentaion first of all, we consider the morals concerning the Natural, Social, and Mental Environments that will be perspectives for leading life style from the viewpoints of ÅgEnvironment, Morality, Personality". Second, we suggest what Environmental Education based on Ethics would be.
2. ³Environmental Ethics² concerning Nature, Society, and Mentality
³The Rights of Natural Objects² could be a focus concerning the Natural Environment. For destroying nature has become a crucial problem at the present time, so, there should be ethical and legal grounds for recognizing the rights of Nature. We need to recognize that we are all members of the ecosystem as an ³Intrinsic value². Thereby, the preservation for Natural Environment could be promoted.
³Voluntary Simplicity in the use of material resources² could be focused on concerning the Social Environment. So far, Social Environment has been manufactured artificially and, cut off from the reality of the Natural Environment. As a result, the Environment has degenerated. Therefore, moral is needed for preventing further degeneration and encouraging people to enjoy a more simple life style voluntarily without consuming excessively.
³The Sense of Wonder² (Rachel Carson) could be focused on concerning the Mental Environment. With a distored and manufactured external Environment in both the Nature and Society, the Mental Environment of people also have been damaged and barren especially by their material desires. It is necessary for people to retain the Sence of Wonder in holding a close communions with natural objects.
Through considering the three morals of Environmental Ethics as above, the first we find out how useful each morals is in preserving nature, second in establishing as social morals, thirdly in enhancing the personality. We can also consider these morals from the viewpoints of Environment, Morality, Personality.
3. Environmental Education: in order to sustain the Global Environment in future
So far, it is apparent how indispensable Environmental Ethics is. Next, we suggest how Environmental Education can be carried out in keeping safe the global environment for future generations.
At this presentation Environmental Education contains ³Home Education,² ³School Education,² and ³Social Education,² by that Lifelong Education is included. In the first ³Home Education² Sentimental Education could be centralized with the factor of Personality through closest relationships between parent and child. In the second, ³School Education² education, that enriches human's morality, could be centralized with the factor of Morality through cooperative relationships with others. In the third ³Social Education², that can convey practical techniques and knowledge in order to deal with Environmental Problems, could be centralized with the factor of Environment through a specific relationship with a particular region.
As we have mentioned above, we discuss how Environmental Education could be within the broader Framewark of Ethics. This Environmental Education may be a means of education that as much as possible diversifies ways of teaching to inculcate environmental sensitivity.
Student of Peking University
A Sustainable Development Analysis of
Student Environmental Protection
Organizations at Chinese University
The Urban and Environmental Science Department, Beijing China 100871
Most of the student environmental protection organizations at Chinese universities have been set up in 1990's. There are about twenty organizations in Beijing colleges and universities, and many more at colleges and universities in other provinces and cities throughout china.
2. Social Background and Effects
The social background
Environmental Problems are becoming more and more severe.
Public environmental education has heightened the level of environmental awareness of all citizens, including college
The International community has been giving increased attention to global environmental problems.
The effects of environmental protection organizations
Heightening environmental awareness
Offering students the chance to participate in environmental protection activities.
Promoting the environmental protection movement.
A series of activities to protect the Dian Golden Monkey. Activities regarding the classification of rubbish * Activities
to protect wild geese
3. An Analysis of the Organization and Management of Environmental Protection Organizations
Although the environmental corporations are composed of college students, undergraduate students, graduate students and doctoral students, the majority of corporation members are undergraduate students.
Reasons for joining
An academic or personal interest in environmental protection. A feeling of responsibility for environmental protection.
Methods of organization and management
Most of the environmental protection corporations are organized spontaneously, with a chairman as the top leader and various departments which are responsible for specific responsibilities, such as an academic department, a practice department, a dissemination department, and a public relation department. Teachers are also engaged to provide guidance and advice.
Sources of funds and their use
Most of organizations have no stable source of funds, thus, the quality of many activities are limited due to a lack of sufficient funds.
Contents and methods of activities
Organizations hold lectures, solicit articles, give symposia, sponsor discussions, and edit academic papers and popular
Outdoor investigations, visiting factories, and participating in academic research jobs, investigations and study.
Editing a blackboard newspaper, producing publications, and holding an annual "Environmental Culture Festival"
Cohesion of corporations
With loose internal relations, some corporations lack a strong cohesive force.
Methods of internal relations
Meetings, publications, and playbills.
Cooperation among corporations
There is only a small amount of cooperation among environmental protection organizations.
4. Countermeasures to increase the sustainability of environmental protection corporations
Normalizing the organization
All ocating a strong leading center, and building an effective organization system.
Strengthening internal relations
Conducting internal meetings frequently, and producing publications regularly.
Paying great attention to training the organizations membership backbone and leadership successors
Adding their environmental knowledge, Heightening their environmental awareness, Offering them the opportunities to manage activities.
Stabilizing the sources of funds
Universities' allocation. Membership dues. Social support. Improving the method of activities.
Increasing the level of participation in activities
Designing the educational activities figuratively. Making the activities extensive and thorough. Strengthening the contact and cooperation among environmental protection organizations at all colleges and universities.
Methods of contact
parties and publications
On April 22nd, 1997, the World Earth Day, colleges and universities in the capital jointly held educational activities.
Strengthening the contact among environmental protection organizations and other organizations
Other organizations include the committees of Communist Youth Leagues and the Student Unions in all departments, schools, colleges, and universities. Making use of the resources of other corporations (human resources, funds, influence ) to extend influence.
5. Final Words
The activities of student environmental protection organizations at colleges and universities is one of the most important methods of public participation in today's system of environmental protection in China. Thus, we should affirm, guide and support the educational activities of these environmental protection organizations in order to promote their healthy and sustainable development.
Environmental Quality and Pollution in Shenzhen City
Graduate Student of Peking University
Shenzhen City is situated at the southern part of Guangdong Province. It borders on New Territories of Hong Kong in the south, overlooking the Da Peng Bay in the east, the Pearl River Estuary in the west and adjoins Dongguang City and Huizhou City in the north. Shenzhen has a total area of 2020 square kilometers, in which the Special Economic Zone covers an area of 327.5 square kilometers.
Shenzhen was turned into a city under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China in March, 1979, and an area of the city then was designated as Special Economic Zone in August 1980. Shenzhen City is divided into five districts: Luohu District, Futian District, Nanshan District, Baoan District and Longgang District, among which Luohu, Futian and Nanshan Districts are located in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. By the end of 1996, the population of the city to taled 3,5848 million including 1,0338 million permanent dwellers and 2,551 million non-permanent ones.
In 1996, the GDP reached 95 billion RMB Yuan (constant price of 1990), an increase of 16.4% comparing with that of last year. With the accelerated socio-economic development, the proportion of the first industry in the national economy has decreased to less than 2%. In the agricultural respect, there was also a big decrease in the area of the land resources and in grain production. The traffic, energy, communication and water supply etc. are being perfected. The three dimensional traffic network of the sea, land and air has been constructed. The Huangtian Airport has 76 domestic flights and 5 international flights.
2. Water Quality and Pollution
In recent years, water pollution problems in the study region have generally become worse as a result of rapid population growth, industrial development and urbanization. Water quality in rivers has deteriorated due to direct discharges of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. The water quality in most of Shenzhen's rivers cannot meet the National Surface Water Quality standard class (GB3838-88). Industrial wastewater discharges are mainly from printing and dyeing processes as well as paper-making, food, leather, electroplating and chemical industrial sectors. In 1995, the total amount of industrial wastewater discharged was approximately 26 million tones, which represents a 25% increase compared with 1993. The total discharge of domestic wastewater was 142.27 million tones in 1993 and contributed to about 85% of the city's total wastewater discharge. Water quality in the major rivers of Shenzhen is worse in the downstream and/or middle river sections but in some cases the river sources are contaminated. The main cause of pollution (predominantly organic) in these rivers is the direct discharge of untreated domestic wastewater. In addition, large scale exploitation in recent years within the river catchments has resulted in severe land erosion.
Coastal waters around Shenzhen are generally of a fairly good quality except in Shenzhen Bay where the quality is worse than the national standard Class. Water quality in Daya Bay and Dapeng Bay meets Class of the National Sea Water Quality Standard. Qianhai Bay is affected by organic pollution from the Pearl River which has resulted in onset of eutrophication. Shenzhen Bay is contaminated due to the input of pollutants from Shenzhen River, Dasha River and Yanlang River (the latter originating in Hong Kong).
3. Air Quality and Pollution
The overall air quality in Shenzhen City meets the National Air Quality Standard class criteria. In some areas, such as Louhu, Longgang and Futian there is an improved air quality which achieves the class requirements of the National Air Quality criteria. Major pollutants are TSP and NOx. In addition, the annual average rainfall pH value in 1996 was 5.21 with only small fluctuations during the previous few years. The occurrence frequency of acid rain in Shenzhen had decreased by 4% in 1996.
Environmental Ethics and Sustainability
Dept. of Urban & Environment, Peking University
1. A Crisis of Unsustainability
Today, there are many environmental issues confront us, many with dire consequences. They are population growth, species extinction, deforestation, soil erosion, surface water shortages, global warming, acid deposition, ozone depletion, environmental pollution(including solid waste , air pollution and water pollution) and so on. The environmental problems facing the world are extremely serious and they are the signs that human society is on an unsustainable course. Many who have studied the environmental crisis believe that humanity cannot continue as we have been in recent years without destroying the planet's life-support systems.
2. Building a Sustainable Society
In 1987, the World Commission on Economics and Development, established by the United Nations , published a ground-breaking book entitled Our Common Future. The author of the book defined a sustainable society as one that meets its needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. A more expansive definition, one which takes into account the requirements of the many other species that share this planet with us, is accepted by more and more people.
A sustainable society is based on such principles as below:
(1) All life depends on a healthy, well-functioning ecosystem.
(2)The earth has a limited supply of resources, which must be shared by all living things.
(3)Human are a part of nature , subject to its rules.
(4)Human success results from cooperation with nature, fitting into web of life , rather than domination and control.
Building a sustainable society require systemic changes in human society. These changes will touch all segments of our civilization from farming to industry to individual lives. One of the most important requirements is a change from linear thinking to system thinking because system thinking encourages us to look at the whole, it will naturally force us to look for the root causes of problems, especially environmental ones. Some change will result from legislative action, new laws and regulations that promote conversation, recycling, renewable resource use, restoration, and pollution control. Technological innovation will also help steer us onto a sustainable path. In fact, the sustainable solutions call for action on the part of large and small businesses, individuals, and governments. As individuals, we must learn to make decisions on the basis of their impact on the Earth and their contribution to sustainability.
3. Environmental Ethics : the Foundation of a Sustainable Society
Because ethics are the foundation of human behavior, changes in the way we think could begin to change the way we act. In 1949, the land ethic put forward by Aldo Leopold, a wildlife ecologist, affirms the right of all resources ,including plants ,animals , and earth materials, to continued existence and ,at least in certain locations , to continued existence in a natural state. This ethic effectively changes our role from conqueror of the land to citizen and protector of the environment.
This new role requires that we revere and love our land and not see it solely as and economic commodity to be used up and thrown away. In the 1970s, philosophers began to formulate environmental ethic which is concerned with the value of the physical and biological environment, whereas classical ethical concerns had to do with social factors(the relationship among people ). Since the Rio Conference in 1992, a new value system ³the sustainable ethic² and its practices are growing worldwide. The sustainable ethical system is a new paradigm that lays the foundation for a sustainable society.
The main tenet of the sustainable ethic is that ³there is not always more,² that is mean the Earth has a limited supply. The core value of the sustainable ethic is respect and care for the community of life which implies human activity should not occur at the expanse of other species or other people. The sustainable ethic entails turning away from self-centered thinking and favoring what is good for the whole of society and the Earth. Restrained is exercised because it benefits all people alive today, future generations, and the many species that share the planet with us. The sustainable ethic outlines six principles by which society can operate, thus putting ethical guidelines into action. They are conversation, recycling, renewable resource use, restoration, population control, and adaptability.